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Negative Tracking Power Supply

Posted by Peter Hiscocks on 6/27/2016 to Resources
It is not uncommon for a circuit to have available a positive power supply, but require a negative supply. For example, using op-amps to process an alternating voltage signal (one that goes both positive and negative) may require a negative power supply. 

There are charge pump integrated circuits for this purpose: a switching circuit charges discharges a group of capacitors such that the output capacitor is charged negative with respect to ground.  This is useful for small currents, in the order of a few milliamps, which may be sufficient for powering an op-amp or two.  But charge pumps are very limited in output current capability - and some have high internal resistance, which results in poor regulation.

For higher currents, the energy storage device must be an inductor. Current is dumped from the positive supply through a switch into the inductor. Current ramps up in the inductor, storing magnetic energy.

Then the switch opens. Current cannot change instantaneously in an inductor, so the current continues in the same fashion. A diode directs this currentinto a conductor into a capacitor, in such a manner that the capacitor charges up to a negative voltage.

There are many switching regulator integrated circuits that can be configured to generate a negative voltage in this fashion. Such a circuit can produce a few hundred milliamperes of current.

I needed a negative voltage supply that would track the positive supply over a range of 0 to +15 volts, so that the negative supply would produce 0 to -15 volts.  The target output current was 150mA.  Using the circuit of reference (1) as a starting point, I developed the circuit shown in figure 1.  It turns out that the CMOS version of the venerable 555 timer, the LMC555, can operate down over a supply range of +1 to +15 volts.  The output drives a PNP switching transistor, which pumps the 150uH inductor.  When Q1 switches off, the top end of the inductor goes negative, charging the output 10F capacitor to a negative voltage.

The two 100k resistors form a voltage divider between the two supplies. For tracking to occur, this voltage should be at zero volts, so it is used as a feedback signal through Q2 and Q3 to the control terminal of the timer IC.

It's really useful to be able to monitor the current in the inductor but there is no easy way to do that directly. I put a 1 ohm resistor in the return line to the input supply and monitored the voltage across that with the oscilloscope. That shows the current in the inductor when it is charging, so it's possible to determine the peak current -- which is the quantity of most interest.

It turns out (see reference 2) that the peak current in the inductor and switching transistor is at least 4 times the average output current. So, for 150mA output current, the switch must be able to handle 600mA. This is a consequence of the inductor waveform, which is a triangle. I decided that a circuit based on square waves would have a more favourable peak-average ratio, and so I did not pursue this circuit any further. But it might be useful for moderate output currents where a tracking supply is useful.

A caveat: the circuit of figure  is not fully debugged. It needs to be tested under a range of currents and voltages. It's likely that under certain conditions the system will be unstable and will require compensation. 

But it might be a starting point.


References

1. 555 as switching regulator supplies negative voltage	
S.L.Black							
http://www.epanorama.net/sff/Power

2. Switching Power Supply Design, 2nd Edition		
Abraham I. Pressman						
McGraw Hill

Analog Design Not Dead

Posted by Peter Hiscocks on 6/27/2016 to Resources
I'm not much of a party person but there are occasions when one's presence is required - and some parties can even be fun if you keep an open mind about it.  (Just beware of an open bar on an empty stomach, that can be deadly.) At one party, I asked one of the guests what he did: 'I'm an astrophysicist' he said.  I guess I looked astonished because he added'Well, someone has to do it.' True enough.  (See the movie Star Men for a nice take on that.)

Anyway, if someone asks me at a party what kind of electronics I do I may say 'analog circuit design', and then the response might be 'I thought analog had been replaced by digital'.  Well, no.

Those comments have come back to me as I've been sweating over various analog circuits for the last few weeks.  The PSM-101 power supply has a major analog circuit, the scopes have preamps and signal generators, the curve tracer is full of analog circuits.  One of our products in development has 18 op-amps and a bunch of discrete transistors.  Op-amps have greatly simplified analog circuit design.  I'm old enough to remember when the one of the first integrated circuit op-amps (the Fairchild uA709) arrived at our workplace.  It came in a jewel box and cost about $100.  Everyone was terrified of using it.  That's changed over the years: one of our op-amp favorites, the TL074, is under a buck for a quad op-amp package.  But analog circuit design is more than plugging an op-amp and some discrete components into a circuit board.  We struggled for over an hour one evening to find the source of a mysterious offset, which turned out to be op-amp bias current (a rookie mistake on my part).

Microprocessor systems are easier to get working, and to do something significant with relatively modest circuit design effort and some programming. So the world is full of Arduinos and other Fruity Computers doing wonderful things, much of it accomplished by beginners - which is great stuff. (Beware, however, computer coders: big programs are not just bigger small programs: they are qualitatively different. You need to plan and design them.) But if you want to be a designer of electronic systems, you need to know both: digital *and* analog. For one thing, you need to be able to choose: sometimes one op-amp can replace hundreds of lines of computer code -- and work better. Other times, you need the flexibility of software to reduce the demands on the analog circuitry.

It takes some time to become an analog circuit designer. Analog design is a nice mix of theory and practice.  There is always new stuff to learn, which is one of the attractions.  It helps to like tinkering with circuits (the best way to learn) and to be endlessly curious.

That said, this is a great time to do analog circuit design: loads of information on the web, readily accessible parts catalogs and suppliers, free circuit simulators, inexpensive components, and terrific instruments for your workbench.  Go for it.

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